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Plants and Animals

Plants and Animals
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Science Square

We feel very happy and cheerful when we see plants and trees around us. Plants are living organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes etc. in this lesson we will learn about the following-

Science Class 3 Plants and Animals 


Parts of a Plant

 

Science Class 3 Plants and Animals 

 

Root

Roots originate from the lower portion of a plant and they are in the soil. Their functions are to absorb nutrients and moisture, anchor the plant in the soil, support the stem, and store food such as carrots. In some plants, they can be used for propagation.

Stem

The stem is the upper part of the plant and bears branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. Stem is generally green when young and later often become woody and dark brown. It conducts water and minerals from the root to the leaves. Some stems perform the function of storage of food for example potato, ginger, turmeric.

Bud

A bud is an undeveloped shoot from which leaves or flower parts grow. Enlarged buds or parts of buds also form the edible portion of some crops for example cabbage.

Leaves

Leaves provide trees with all their food because they turn sunlight into food energy through photosynthesis. Leaves also make the oxygen in the air that we breathe.

Flowers

Flowers generally are the showiest part of a plant. Their beauty and fragrance attract pollinators (insects or birds) that play an important role in the reproductive process.

Fruit

Fruit is the fleshy structure of certain plants that may be sweet and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes etc. It also consists of seeds which are for propagation of plant. The seed contain food which supplies energy and materials for growth until the plant grows its first leaves above the ground.

 

Types of Plants

Science Class 3 Plants and Animals 

 

There are three types of plants namely shrubs, trees and clmbers.

The plants which are small and have short lifespan are called shrubs.

The plants which are very big and have longer lifespan are called trees.

The plants which creep on land or need support of others to climb are called climbers.

 

Uses of Plants

Plants are very helpful to us. They provide us with foods such as fruits and vegetables. We obtain wood from trees which is used to build houses. Also some plants like aloevera and tulsi have healing abilities due to which they are used in medicines.

 

Now let’s study about animals. You have already learnt about different types of animals in your previous class. However in this class we will focus on the following-

Science Class 3 Plants and Animals 

 

Science Class 3 Plants and Animals 

 

Based on the food animals eat, they are categorised into the following

Herbivores- animals who eat only plants are called herbivores. For eg rabbit, cow, goat, deer and elephant

Carnivores animals who eat other animals are called carnivores. For eg frog, tiger, snake, dolphin.

Omnivores animals who eat both plants and animals are called omnivores. For eg dogs, pigs, rat and wolf.

 

Food chain

Every living thing needs energy in order to live. Everytime animals do something either run or jump, they use energy to do so.

Animals and all living things get energy from food. Plants use sunlight, water and nutrients to get energy (in a process called photosynthesis). Energy is necessary for living beings to grow.

A food chain shows how each living thing gets food, and how nutrients and energy are passed from creature to creature. Food chains begin with plant-life, and end with animal-life. Some animals eat plants, some animals eat other animals. Here are examples of two food chains. Look at it.

Science Class 3 Plants and Animals 

 

Science Class 3 Plants and Animals 

 

Guess the animals in the second food chain and write for yourself.

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