Plants are the essential part of every living being, whether the living being lives on land or in water. There are two kinds of plants, i.e. Terrestrial Plants and Aquatic Plants.

Science Class 4 Plants


Terrestrial Plants- Plants Growing on Land

Plants which grow on land are called terrestrial plants. There are many different types of terrestrial plants

  • Plants of Hills

Pine, deodar, cedar and fir are some of the plants which grow on the hills. These plants are tall and straight and generally, have a conical shape. These tall, straight and green conical trees make hills appear green and beautiful.

Their leaves are narrow and needle-shaped. The conical shape of these trees does not allow snow to get deposited on them.

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  • Plants of Plains

Peepal, banyan, mango, sal, Sheesham are some of the plants found in plains. They grow into trees having many branches.

Science Class 4 Plants

Plants of Hot and Wet Regions

Trees like teak, rubber and coconut are found in hot and wet regions. They generally have a large number of leaves. They shed their leaves gradually. Hence, they are called evergreen trees. Plants like pepper, cotton, rice and banana also grow in hot and wet regions.

  • Plants of Marshy Areas

Mangroves grow in marshy soil. These plants develop special roots for breathing as their main underground roots do not get sufficient oxygen from the soil.

Science Class 4 Plants

Portions of their roots come out of the soil, above water level and take oxygen from the air. These roots are called breathing roots. They are also called aerial roots.

Science Class 4 Plants

  • Plants of Desert Areas

Cactus grows in the desert. It can survive in soil that has very little water. It has a green stem and well-developed roots. The stem stores water. Therefore, it is soft and fleshy. Cactus plants have spines instead of leaves.

Aquatic Plants- Plants Growing in Water

Science Class 4 Plants  

Many plants grow in ponds, lakes and other water bodies. Such plants, found in water are called aquatic plants. Aquatic plants are of two main types. Some of such plants float on water while others live under water.

  • Floating Aquatic Plants

Floating aquatic plants are of two types:

1. Free Floating Plants

Water lettuce, water hyacinth and duckweed are found floating freely in water. They are not attached to any surface. They have air-filled cavities in their leaves and stems. These cavities make them light and help them to easily float on water.

Science Class 4 Plants

2. Fixed Aquatic Plants

Lotus and water lily are examples of fixed aquatic plants. Such plants are attached to the pond bed. They have stems with holes and their leaves are broad. The stem of the lotus, commonly known as ‘Kamal Kakdi’ is eaten as a vegetable.


Science Class 4 Plants

3. Underwater Plants

Hydrilla is an example of a plant that grows underwater. It has pointed and strap-like leaves.

Science Class 4 Plants



  • Plants growing in hilly areas are tall and straight and generally have a conical shape.
  • Trees from wet and hot regions are called evergreen trees.
  • Mangroves grow in marshy soil.
  • Cavities make free-floating plants light and help them to easily float on water.