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Nutrition in Plants & Animals

Nutrition in Plants & Animals
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The process of having nutrients inside from the foods you consume is called as Nutrition. Nutrients comprise of Proteins, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Fats and Minerals. Plants and Animals need food as it is an essential supplement for all living organisms.

Introduction to Nutrition in Plants

Plants have the capacity of generating their food on their own. Plants use raw materials like water, carbon dioxide and minerals to prepare their food.



  1. Autotrophs or Autotrophic-

In this mode, organisms use very simple substances to produce their food. All green plants come under autotrophs.

  1. Heterotrophs or Heterophobic-

The organisms who obtain their food from other organisms are known as Heterotrophs.  Heterophobic organisms are called as consumers because they depend on other organisms for their food. This category includes animals and non-green plants like fungi.

Some other modes of nutrition in plants are:-

  • Most of the plants make their food using a green pigment which is called as chlorophyll.
  • The plants which do not have chlorophyll and are unable to synthesize their own food are known as Heterotrophic plants.
  • Plants also prepare their food using the process of Photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis

It is a process of making food by plants using substances like water and carbon dioxide in the existence of sunlight.

During the process of photosynthesis, oxygen gets released:



Conditions necessary for photosynthesis:

  • Sunlight
  • Chlorophyll
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Water

Introduction to Nutrition in Animals

Nutrition in animals includes the requirement of nutrients, how the food is consumed and how the food is utilized by the body. Animals adopt a heterotrophic mode of nutrition because they fetch their food from different plants. Animals either eat other plants or directly or by indirectly eating animals that eat plants.

Division of Animals according to their food habits-

  • Herbivorous: Animals eating only plants are called as Herbivorous.

         Examples are Goat, Cow, Deer etc.

  • Carnivorous: Animals eating only other animals for their food are called as carnivorous

          Examples are Lion, Tiger, Lizard etc.

  • Omnivorous: Animals eating both plants and animals are called as omnivorous.

         Examples are Man, Dog, Crow etc.

The process of Nutrition in animals

  1. Ingestion: The process of taking food inside is ingestion. This method varies from one animal to another.
  1. Digestion: When the food is broken down from complex substances into simpler substances than it is called as Digestion.
  1. Absorption: In absorption, digested food is passed into the blood vessels in the intestine.
  1. Assimilation: In assimilation, the absorbed food is converted into complex components like proteins and vitamins which are highly required by the body. This process helps the cells to get nutrients and oxygen.
  1. Egestion: The process of removing the waste material from the body is known as Egestion. It removes the fecal matter time to time through the anus. The process of Egestion is also called as Defecation.

Recap

  • Nutrition is an important element for both plants and animals
  • Nutrients are required to obtain energy, materials and carry out life processes.
  • In plants, there are two types of modes of nutrition: Autotrophic & Heterotrophic
  • Plants also generate food using the process of photosynthesis using chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
  • Animals are of three types: Herbivorous, Carnivorous & Omnivorous.

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Quiz for Nutrition in Plants & Animals

Q.1

Xerophytes have spine like leaves to:

a) promote the loss of water
b) reduce the loss of water through transpiration
c) to reduce the amount of carbon-dioxide released
d) to minimise the production of food

Q.2

The carbohydrates are stored in the form of ______ in plants.

a) starch
b) glucose
c) sucrose
d) maltose

Q.3

Farmers use nitrogen rich fertilisers because:

a) they are cheaper
b) nitrogen is essential for the production of proteins in plants
c) nitrogen is essential for the production of carbohydrates in plants
d) none of these

Q.4

Rhizobium lives in the roots of legumes. This kind of relation will be termed as:

a) symbiotic
b) insectivorous
c) saprophytic
d) none of these

Q.5

Pepsinogen present in the stomach gets activated due to the release of ________.

a) mucous
b) pepsin
c) HCL
d) salivary amylase

Q.6

Photosynthesis results in the release of:

a) carbon-dioxide
b) oxygen
c) energy
d) proteins

Q.7

_________ provides the least amount of energy to the body.

a) roughage
b) carbohydrates
c) fats
d) proteins

Q.8

Plants absorb water and minerals from:

a) leaves
b) air
c) soil
d) all of these

Q.9

The partially digested food stored in the rumen of certain animals is called:

a) bolus
b) cud
c) chyme
d) none of these

Q.10

Rate of photosynthesis is the fastest in:

a) yellow light
b) white light
c) green light
d) red light

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