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Coal and Petroleum

Coal and Petroleum
science Square
Science Square

Coal

  • Coal is an exhaustible natural resource which is formed form the dead remains of all the living organisms we have.
  • Coal is black in color and is hard like a stone substance.
  • Coal has many uses like source of heat too cook food, to produce electricity used in thermal power plants, etc.


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Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

History of coal

  • There were forests which existed on earth before 300 million years.
  • Due to some natural disasters like floods, plants and trees got buried in earth.
  • This caused the layers of soil to deposit over them and compress them.
  • Coal was formed later due to the high temperature and pressure over this by forest.

Carbonisation

  • Carbonisation is the process of converting the dead vegetation or plants into coal.
  • Firstly coal contains carbon which converts into carbon dioxide due to burning it in the air.

Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

Some products obtained from the coal

  1. Coke
  • Coke is porous, hard and black in color. The purest form of carbon is coke.
  • It is used in the extraction of metals, manufacturing of steel, etc.

Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

  1. Coal Tar
  • Coal Tar is a liquid in thick black color which has a foul smell. When 200 substances are mixed then Coal Tar is formed.
  • It is used in the making of drugs, dyes, perfumes, explosives, etc

Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

  1. Coal Gas
  • When coal is processed to form the coke, then coal gas is obtained.
  • Coal gas is used as a fuel in industries.

Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

Petroleum

  • Earlier lot of organisms used to live in the seas.
  • Due to the death of these organisms, their bodies got settled in sea and the layers of clay and sand got collected over them
  • Due to absence of air for millions of years, pressure and temperature converted them into the mineral called petroleum.

Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

Refining of petroleum

  • Petroleum has a foul smell and is an oily dark liquid.
  • Petrol contains constituents like petrol. Diesel, petroleum gas, paraffin, wax, lubricating oil, etc.


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Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

Process of refining petroleum

  • Refining

Refining is the process of the separation of the various constituents of petroleum and this process is formulated in petroleum refineries.

Natural Gas

  • Natural gas is a very significant fossil fuel.
  • Natural gas can be conveniently sent through pipes.
  • Natural gas in our country is found in Rajasthan, Tripura, and Maharashtra and in the Krishna Godavari Delta.

Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

Compressed natural gas (CNG)

  • CNG is the gas formed when natural gas is stored under very high pressure.
  • It is used in the making of several chemicals and fertilizers.
  • CNG is also used as a fuel in automobiles.

Science Class 8 Coal and Petroleum

 
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Recap

  • Coal is an exhaustible natural resource which is formed from the dead remains of all the living organisms we have.
  • Coal is black in color and is hard like a stone substance.
  • Carbonization is the process of converting the dead vegetation or plants into coal.
  • Earlier lot of organisms used to live in the seas.
  • Due to the death of these organisms, their bodies got settled in sea and the layers of clay and sand got collected over them
  • Due to absence of air for millions of years, pressure and temperature converted them into the mineral called petroleum.

Refining is the process of the separation of the various constituents of petroleum and this process is formulated in petroleum refineries.

  • Natural gas is a very significant fossil fuel.
  • CNG is the gas formed when natural gas is stored under very high pressure.

 

 

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Quiz for Coal and Petroleum

Q.1

Which of the following is called liquid gold?

a) Coal tar
b) Petroleum
c) Coke
d) Crude Oil

Q.2

Two or more liquids having different boiling point can be separated by which method?

a) Fractional Distillation
b) Destructive Distilation
c) Chromatography
d) Photography

Q.3

Compressed Natural Gas is used in which of the following?

a)

Kitchen

b)

Auto Rickshaws

c)

Cars

d)

Both B & C

Q.4

Liquid Petroleum Gas is the mixture of ________________.

a) Ethane & Carbonmono oxide
b) Ethane and Propane
c) Butane, Propane & Ethane
d) Methane & Hydrogen

Q.5

Crude oil is refined by which method?

a) Fractional Distillation
b) Destructive Distilation
c) Chromatography
d) All of the above

Q.6

Which of the following is the example of Solid Fossil Fuel?

a) Gasoline
b) Coal tar
c) Coke
d) Bituminous

Q.7

Forest are the example of ___________.

a)

Exhaustible Natural resource

b)

Inexhaustible Natural resource

c)

Fossil Fuel

d)

None of the above

Q.8

The largest number of coal mines is located in which Indian state?

a) Jharkhand
b) Maharashtra
c) Orrissa
d) Madhya Pradesh

Q.9

The condition needed for the coal formation is ________.

a) Dry & Hot
b) Rainy
c) Humid & Hot
d) Cold & dry

Q.10

Coal is used in _________?

a)

Thermal Power Plants

b)

Cement Plants

c)

Houses

d)

All of the above

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