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Human Body and Health

Human Body and Health
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The human body is a complex system which is made up of different systems. These different systems have their particular work that helps a body to be in a functional state.

Let us discuss the various systems of the body-

Circulatory system 

All the parts of our body need oxygen and nutrients and this work is done by our blood. The blood is circulated throughout our body through blood vessels. Our heart circulates the blood. It pumps the blood and the blood flows through the blood vessels. Heart and blood vessels together combined forms the circulatory system.

Blood vessels are of three types: artery, vein and capillary. Ribs protect our heart from injuries. The ribs are a cage-like structure to protect the heart from any external damage. There are 12 pairs of ribs in a human being.

Science Class 4 Human Body and Health

Respiratory System

We take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. The exchange of gases takes place through the respiratory system. It includes:

  • Nose: We take in the air inside through the nose. The small hair in the nose prevents the entry of dust particles.
  • Lungs: These are the major respiratory organs where the exchange of gases takes place.

Science Class 4 Human Body and Health

Nervous System

It coordinates all the actions of our body. It mainly consists of the brain which coordinates all the other systems.

 

Science Class 4 Human Body and Health

 

Science Class 4 Human Body and Health
  

Digestive System

Food is necessary for all the living beings to survive and grow. We take our food inside through our mouth and chew it with our teeth.

The process of the digestive system allows our body to get the nutrients and energy from the food we eat.

 

Science Class 4 Human Body and Health
  

Excretory System

The excretory system helps us to get rid of our body wastes. The main organs of this system are:

  • Kidneys: There is a pair of kidneys in human beings which are located below the rib cage. These are the major excretory organs which filter our blood.
  • Ureters: They carry urine from kidneys to the urinary bladder.
  • Urinary bladder: It stores the urine temporarily.
  • Urethra: The urine is released to outside through urethra.

Science Class 4 Human Body and Health                                                                                                                                            

Immune System

All system has their unique work to do but we need to protect our body against diseases and infections. The immune system of our body plays this role of protecting. It is basically a defense mechanism as immune system protects our body against diseases. The immune system uses antibodies to fight the infections and diseases.

Health 

Sanitation

Our body helps us to fight against diseases with its immune system. But it can protect us up to a certain limit only. We have to take proper care of our body to keep it diseases-free and healthy. We also need to keep our surroundings and food clean to avoid diseases.                      

If we do not keep ourselves and our surroundings clean, the diseases can harm our body:            

  • Cholera- It is caused by using contaminated water and food.
  • Food Poisoning- It is also caused by contaminated food.
  • Typhoid- It is also caused in much the same way as cholera.

So, in order to prevent ourselves from these deadly diseases, we need to keep some things in mind always.

These are:

  • Always keep your body clean.
  • We should keep our surroundings clean.
  • For a clean body, we should take a bath daily.
  • We should brush our teeth at least twice daily.
  • Never let the stagnant water at any place to remain for long as it becomes the breeding ground for mosquitoes.
  •  Do not let the garbage collection in your surroundings. It attracts the flies which contaminate the food.
  • Always keep the eatables in a neat and clean place where there are no flies.
  • Wash the vegetables and pulses thoroughly with clean water before cooking them.
  • Always wash your hands before cooking food and even before and after eating the food.
  • Keep the food properly covered.
  • Always eat in clean utensils.

One should take good care of his/her health. Health is wealth. There are four golden rules for a good health-

  • Take a balanced and healthy diet.
  • Sleep and rise early.
  • Drink lots of water.

 

Science Class 4 Human Body and Health  

Recap

  • Heart and blood vessels together combined forms the circulatory system.
  • The brain is the part of our body that controls all the actions of the body. Anything that we do, our brain is involved.
  • Kidneys are the major excretory organs which filter our blood.
  • There are four golden rules for a good health-
  • Take a balanced and healthy diet.
  • Sleep and rise early.
  • Drink lots of water.

 

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Quiz for Human Body and Health

Q.1

It helps in the movement of the body with the help of joints. It supports the body by giving it a form and a shape. It provides protection to the internal organs. What is it?

a)

Circulatory

b)

Reflex action

c)

Skeletal system

d)

Nervous

Q.2

What are used for movements in body?

a)

Joints

b)

Muscles

c)

Ribs

d)

Ligament

Q.3

What are tough white cords that attach muscles to the bones?

a)

Tendons

b)

Muscles

c)

Ribs

d)

Ligament

Q.4

Which is a fibrous yellowish tissue that holds the bones together?

a)

Cartilage

b)

Muscles

c)

Ribs

d)

Ligament

Q.5

Sugar is an ____________________ giving food.

a) vitamin
b) energy
c) minerals
d) acetic acid

Q.6

We should drink at least ___________________ liters of water.

a) 2
b) 1
c) 3-'4
d) 1'/2

Q.7

Eggs and pulses are rich in _____________.

a)

minerals

b)

vitamins

c)

carbohydrates

d)

proteins

Q.8

Strong ______________ and strong _________________ together make a healthy body.

a) muscles
b) brain, spinal cord
c) sense organs
d) bones & muscles

Q.9

Which are the organs responsible to make the body aware of the surroundings?

a) muscles
b) brain, spinal cord
c) sense organs
d) bones & muscles

Q.10

What are the main functions of a central nervous system?

a)

Muscles

b)

Brain, spinal cord

c)

Reflex action

d)

Tendons

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